General information on ranking

Name of the ranking CWTS Leiden Ranking
Geographical scope Global
Name of person in charge of ranking Ludo Waltman
E-mail of person in charge of ranking waltmanlr@cwts.leidenuniv.nl
Website of the ranking www.leidenranking.com
Publication frequency annual
First year of publication 2008
Most recent year of publication 2023
Date of last update 2024-05-05
Ranking organization Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University
Website of the methodology https://www.leidenranking.com/information/indicators
Methodology

The CWTS Leiden Ranking offers a sophisticated set of bibliometric indicators that provide statistics at the level of universities on scientific impact, collaboration, open access publishing, and gender diversity. The indicators used in the Leiden Ranking are:

 

SCIENTIFIC IMPACT INDICATORS 

  • P. Total number of publications of a university.
  • P(top 1%) and PP(top 1%). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that, compared with other publications in the same field and in the same year, belong to the top 1% most frequently cited.
  • P(top 5%) and PP(top 5%). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that, compared with other publications in the same field and in the same year, belong to the top 5% most frequently cited.
  • P(top 10%) and PP(top 10%). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that, compared with other publications in the same field and in the same year, belong to the top 10% most frequently cited.
  • P(top 50%) and PP(top 50%). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that, compared with other publications in the same field and in the same year, belong to the top 50% most frequently cited.
  • TCS and MCS. The total and the average number of citations of the publications of a university.
  • TNCS and MNCS. The total and the average number of citations of the publications of a university, normalized for field and publication year. An MNCS value of two for instance means that the publications of a university have been cited twice above the average of their field and publication year.

 

COLLABORATION INDICATORS                                        

  • P. Total number of publications of a university.
  • P(collab) and PP(collab). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that have been co-authored with one or more other organizations.
  • P(int collab) and PP(int collab). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that have been co-authored by two or more countries.
  • P(industry) and PP(industry). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications that have been co-authored with one or more industrial organizations. All private sector for profit business enterprises, covering all manufacturing and services sectors, are regarded as industrial organizations. This includes research institutes and other corporate R&D laboratories that are fully funded or owned by for profit business enterprises. Organizations in the private education sector and private medical/health sector (including hospitals and clinics) are not classified as industrial organizations.
  • P(<100 km) and PP(<100 km). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications with a geographical collaboration distance of less than 100 km. The geographical collaboration distance of a publication equals the largest geographical distance between two addresses mentioned in the publication’s address list.
  • P(>5000 km) and PP(>5000 km). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications with a geographical collaboration distance of more than 5000 km.

 

OPEN ACCESS INDICATORS   

  • P. Total number of publications of a university.
  • P(OA) and PP(OA). The number and the proportion of open access publications of a university.
  • P(gold OA) and PP(gold OA). The number and the proportion of gold open access publications of a university. Gold open access publications are publications in an open access journal.
  • P(hybrid OA) and PP(hybrid OA). The number and the proportion of hybrid open access publications of a university. Hybrid open access publications are publications in a subscription journal that are open access with a license that allows the publication to be reused.
  • P(bronze OA) and PP(bronze OA). The number and the proportion of bronze open access publications of a university. Bronze open access publications are publications in a subscription journal that are open access without a license that allows the publication to be reused.
  • P(green OA) and PP(green OA). The number and the proportion of green open access publications of a university. Green open access publications are publications in a subscription journal that are open access not in the journal itself but in a repository.
  • P(OA unknown) and PP(OA unknown). The number and the proportion of a university’s publications for which the open access status is unknown. These publications typically do not have a DOI in the Web of Science database.                   

 

GENDER INDICATORS

  • A. The total number of authorships of a university. Consider for instance a publication that has five authors, of which three report university X as their affiliation and two report university Y as their affiliation. This publication then yields three authorships for university X and two authorships for university Y.
  • A(MF). The number of male and female authorships of a university, that is, a university’s number of authorships for which the gender is known.
  • A(unknown) and PA(unknown). The number of authorships of a university for which the gender is unknown and the number of authorships for which the gender is unknown as a proportion of a university’s total number of authorships.
  • A(M), PA(M), and PA(M|MF). The number of male authorships of a university, the number of male authorships as a proportion of a university’s total number of authorships, and the number of male authorships as a proportion of a university’s number of male and female authorships.
  • A(F), PA(F), and PA(F|MF). The number of female authorships of a university, the number of female authorships as a proportion of a university’s total number of authorships, and the number of female authorships as a proportion of a university’s number of male and female authorships.

Additional information

  • Type of publication: internet
  • Internet users access to ranking: open access
  • Language of publication: English
  • Main target groups: higher education institutions, policymakers, governments and funding agencies
  • Level of comparison: institutional: 1411, fields of science: 5
  • Major dimensions covered: internationalization, research, gender diversity
  • Structure of presentation: multi-indicator ranking
  • Data sources: third-party database (data not provided by HEI)
  • Website of the ranking organization: http://www.cwts.nl
  • Types of the ranking organization: university/higher education institution
  • Types of rankings: global